One of the best features of Azure DevOps is the extensive API. However, while having a REST API is great, interacting with a service at HTTP level can be frustrating.

Azure itself has an extensive API, and the API has been wrapped into an easy to use cross-platform command line interface (CLI) called az. Fortunately, there is an extension to az for interacting with Azure DevOps called az devops.

In this post I'll walk through installing the cli, some basics for using the cli effectively and then 10 practical examples of how to use it:

  1. Creating a Team Project
  2. Managing Security Groups
  3. Determining if a Git Repo Exists
  4. Creating a Git Repo and Importing an External Repo
  5. (Bonus) Automating Git Commands After Cloning
  6. Deleting a Git Repo
  7. Creating an ARM Service Endpoint
  8. Creating and Deleting (YML) Environments using invoke
  9. Creating Variable Groups
  10. Creating YML Pipelines

Installing az and az devops

To install az you can follow these instructions. Once you've installed az you can install the devops extension by following these instructions (all you really have to do is type az extension add --name azure-devops).

-h is your friend

The -h switch (help) is your friend. I have often discovered new subcommands by using the switch, and of course for each command you need the help to figure out all of the args you need to pass. For example, az devops project create -h prints out all the args needed to create a new Azure DevOps Team Project.

Organization

When you run az devops commands, you'll need to specify the organization (and often Team Project) that you want to run commands against. Supposedly, you can set a default using az devops configure defaults organization=https://dev.azure.com/myOrg but I could not get that to work. Instead, I put the org URL into a variable and use the --org $orgUrl argument for every command.

JMESPath

The other argument that you'll need to want to know is the --query argument. This allows you to specify JSON queries against the results of a command to extract certain information. JMESPath is at once powerful and frustrating. You can find documentation on this query language here.

You'll also want to use the -o parameter to specify the output. For scripts, using -o tsv (table separated values) will give you plain text results that you can assign to variables for use further down in your scripts.

For example, if you want to determine if a Team Project already exists, you can use the az devops project list command: but it will return an array of objects which you'll have to try to parse:

/home/colin/repos/foo [master ≡]> az devops project list --org $orgUrl
{
  "continuationToken": null,
  "value": [
    {
      "abbreviation": null,
      "defaultTeamImageUrl": null,
      "description": null,
      "id": "<redacted>",
      "lastUpdateTime": "2020-07-17T20:54:47.090000+00:00",
      "name": "Project1",
      "revision": 622,
      "state": "wellFormed",
      "url": "https://dev.azure.com/<redacted>/_apis/projects/<redacted>",
      "visibility": "private"
    },
    {
      "abbreviation": null,
      "defaultTeamImageUrl": null,
      "description": null,
      "id": "<redacted>",
      "lastUpdateTime": "2020-07-15T04:33:19.377000+00:00",
      "name": "Project2",
      "revision": 306,
      "state": "wellFormed",
      "url": "https://dev.azure.com/<redacted>/_apis/projects/<redacted>",
      "visibility": "private"
    },
    ...
    {
      "abbreviation": null,
      "defaultTeamImageUrl": null,
      "description": null,
      "id": "<redacted>",
      "lastUpdateTime": "2020-07-20T15:33:57.950000+00:00",
      "name": "Projectn",
      "revision": 670,
      "state": "wellFormed",
      "url": "https://dev.azure.com/<redacted>/_apis/projects/<redacted>",
      "visibility": "private"
    }
  ]
}

Using the --query parameter, we can return a simple array of strings (each entry is a Team Project name) making parsing much simpler: az devops project list --org $orgUrl --query "value[].name" -o tsv:

/home/colin/repos/foo [master ≡]> az devops project list --org $orgUrl --query "value[].name" -o tsv
Project1
Project2
...
Projectn

Authentication

To authenticate, you need to run az devops login which will ask for a Personal Access Token (PAT) to connect to your Azure DevOps organization. Being prompted is fine when you're working in a console, but if you want to automate az devops commands, you're going to want to log in without the prompt. To do this, you can set an environment variable called AZURE_DEVOPS_EXT_PAT to the value of your PAT. In my pwsh (cross-platform PowerShell) scripts, this didn't seem to work totally, so I ended up piping the PAT to the login command too: $pat | az devops login.

Examples

Now that we've got some basics out the way, let's take a look at a few examples.

Example 1: Creating a Team Project

This one is pretty straightforward: az devops project create --org $orgUrl --name MyNewProject. However, in the script I was creating, I wanted to add an organizational group to the Project Admins group. That leads to...

Example 2: Managing Security Groups

Let's get the descriptor (id) of the newly created Team Project's Project Administrator Group:

az devops security group list -p $projectName --org $orgUrl --query "graphGroups[?contains(principalName,'Project Administrators')].descriptor" -o tsv

We're using az devops security group to list out the groups of a Team Project. We're then using the contains JMESPath function to query for the node that has the attribute principalName like Project Administrators and returning the descriptor attribute.

Next we query an org-level group by adding --scope organization to the command:

az devops security group list --org $orgUrl --scope organization --query "graphGroups[?contains(principalName,'Specialists')].descriptor" -o tsv

Here we query the org-level groups looking for a group containing the word Specialists and again return the descriptor.

Finally, we use the group membership command to add the Specialists group to the Project Admins group:

az devops security group membership add --org $orgUrl --group-id $projAdminGroupDescriptor --member-id $specialistGroupDescriptor

Example 3: Determining if a Git Repo Exists

Getting a list of Repo names in a Team Project is easy:

$repoList = az repos list --org $orgUrl -p $ProjectName --query "[].name" -o tsv

Next I wanted to determine if a repo with a given name existed. Since I'm in pwsh on linux, I initially tried -contains but this is a case sensitive search. To make the search case insensitive, I convert the list to an ObjectCollection and use FindIndex:

$repoCollection = [Collections.Generic.List[Object]]$repoList
if ($repoCollection -and $repoCollection.FindIndex({ $args[0] -eq $RepoName }) -ge 0) {
    Write-Host "Repo already exists"
} else {
    Write-Host "Cloning repo..."
}

Example 4: Creating a Git Repo and Importing an External Repo

Before importing a repo, we have to have a repo to import into. To create an empty Git repo, we can use this command:

az repos create --name $RepoName -p $ProjectName --org $orgUrl

Next we want to create an import request. In my case, the source repo was another Azure DevOps organization repo and so authentication was required. The same would be true of any private repo. If you require authentication, then generate an authentication token on the source repo and set the environment variable AZURE_DEVOPS_EXT_GIT_SOURCE_PASSWORD_OR_PAT to the value of the token (or password). Then the import request will include authentication:

az repos import create --git-url $sourceRepoURL -p $ProjectName --org $orgUrl --repository $RepoName --requires-authorization

This creates the request and performs the import from the external Git repo.

(Bonus) Example 5: Automating Git Commands After Cloning

In our case, we needed to manipulate some files after the import. Assuming we already have a PAT for the new target Team Project (same one we used to authenticate using az devops login), we can configure Git to allow git operations using -c http.extraHeader.

Let's first get the URL of the new repo using:

$repoUrl = az repos show -p $ProjectName --org $orgUrl -r $RepoName --query "webUrl" -o tsv

Next, we encode the header to authenticate to the new repo:

$b64Pat = [Convert]::ToBase64String([System.Text.Encoding]::UTF8.GetBytes(":$PAT"))

Finally, we use the encoded PAT when performing remote git operations (like clone, pull and push):

git -c http.extraHeader="Authorization: Basic $b64Pat" clone $repoUrl

Example 6: Deleting a Repo

When you create a new Team Project (using Git) you get a repo with the same name as the Team Project. We wanted to delete that repo. First, get the repo id and then delete it:

$repoId = az repos show -r $ProjectName -p $ProjectName --org $orgUrl --query "id" -o tsv
az repos delete --id $repoId --org $orgUrl -p $ProjectName -y

Example 7: Creating an ARM Service Endpoint

We needed to create a Service Endpoint to an Azure Subscription in our script. Once again, there is authentication involved because you need an SPN key (we're connecting via SPN and not certificate). Once again, setting an environment variable AZURE_DEVOPS_EXT_AZURE_RM_SERVICE_PRINCIPAL_KEY saved the day. Assuming we have the SPNClientID, AzureSubscriptionID and Name and TenantID, we can create a service endpoint using:

az devops service-endpoint azurerm create --azure-rm-service-principal-id $SPNClientID --azure-rm-subscription-id $AzureSubscriptionID --azure-rm-subscription-name $AzureSubscriptionName --azure-rm-tenant-id $TenantID --name $ServiceEndpointName -p $ProjectName --org $orgUrl

One more thing: once we created the endpoint, we wanted it to be authorized for all pipelines. Fortunately we can do this using az devops too! First we retrieve the ID of the newly created endpoint, and then update it:

$epId = az devops service-endpoint list --org $orgUrl -p $ProjectName --query "[?name=='$ServiceEndpointName'].id" -o tsv
az devops service-endpoint update --id $epId --enable-for-all true --org $orgUrl -p $ProjectName

Example 8: Creating and Deleting (YML) Environments using invoke

Up until this point, I have been able to do everything I needed using "native" az devops commands. However, when it comes to manipulating YML environments, there are not yet commands for this in az devops. Fortunately, az devops provides a "catch all" command called invoke that lets you easily invoke any REST API method against Azure DevOps.

Here is the REST API call to list YML environments from this help doc:

GET https://dev.azure.com/{organization}/{project}/_apis/distributedtask/environments?api-version=6.0-preview.1

This URL has a "routing parameter" {project} and then the portion after the _apis specifies the area (distributedtask) and resource (environments). Finally, we have to note the api-version.

Armed with this, we can formulate the request for the az devops invoke command:

$envs = az devops invoke --area distributedtask --resource environments --route-parameters project=$ProjectName --org $orgUrl --api-version "6.0-preview" -o json | ConvertFrom-Json

Note: the api-version value is "6-0-preview" without the .1 from the API documentation

We can then query the environments. If we decide that we want to create an environment, we'll need to do a POST. az devops invoke requires a JSON file as the body of the POST, so we can create the body and dump it to a json file and then pass that in as the --in-file argument:

$envBody = @{
  name = $env
  description = "My $env environment"
}
$infile = "envbody.json"
Set-Content -Path $infile -Value ($envBody | ConvertTo-Json)
az devops invoke `
   --area distributedtask --resource environments `
   --route-parameters project=$ProjectName --org $orgUrl `
   --http-method POST --in-file $infile `
   --api-version "6.0-preview"
rm $infile -f

To delete an environment, find its ID:

$id = az devops invoke --area distributedtask --resource environments --route-parameters project=$ProjectName --org $orgUrl --api-version "6.0-preview" --query "value[?name=='myEnvToDelete'].id" -o tsv

Once you have its ID, you can use the DELETE http-method to invoke the REST API DELETE method:

az devops invoke --area distributedtask --resource environments --route-parameters project=$ProjectName environmentId=$id --org $orgUrl --http-method DELETE --api-version "6.0-preview"

Example 9: Creating Variable Groups

We can use az pipelines variable-group commands to manipulate variable groups. Here's how we list all the variable groups in a Team Project:

az pipelines variable-group list -p $ProjectName --org $orgUrl --query "[].name" -o tsv

To create a variable group, we use the create subcommand. We can also specify key/value pairs using the --variables arg:

az pipelines variable-group create --name $varGroupName -p $ProjectName --org $orgUrl --authorize --variables var1="val1" var2="val2"

Example 10: Creating a YML Pipeline

To create a YML pipeline, you'll need a name as well as the repository, branch and path to the YML file within the repo (the path relative to the root path of the repo):

az pipelines create -p $ProjectName --org $orgUrl --name $PipelineName --description $PipelineDescription --repository $RepoName --repository-type tfsgit --branch master --skip-first-run --yml-path $YmlPath

Note: The --skip-first-run tells Azure DevOps not to immediately run the pipeline. If you do not specify this, the pipeline is automatically queued.

If you need UI variables for the pipeline, you can add these using az pipelines variables create like this:

az pipelines variable create -p $ProjectName --org $orgUrl --pipeline-name $PipelineName --name myVar --value "some value" --allow-override $true

Note: The --allow-override is the checkbox on the UI that allows users to override the variable value at queue time.

Conclusion

Azure DevOps has a rich REST API and az devops certainly makes interacting with the API much easier. This cli is under constant development, so even if there are APIs that are not yet wrapped (like the YML Environment APIs) you can use invoke to interact with those APIs. This makes az devops a natural choice for scripting and automating Azure DevOps tasks!

Happy commanding!